Computer systems in bee-keeping
Kursk State Technical University

Contents

Preface……………………………………………………………...………………3

Introduction……………………………………………………...…………………5

Chapter 1. Analysis of the means for processing of information about

  bee-families…………………………………………………………..7

  • Analysis of the physical parameters of the bee-families vitae functions……7

1.1.1. Distribution of thermal field in the beehive during different periods

 of bee-families vital functions.……………………………………......7

1.1.2. Temperature meters in the beehive………………………………….12

1.1.2.1. Thermoresistors as temperature meter…………………...…13

1.1.2.2. The device for recording thermal fields distribution in the

 beehive using thermoresistive sensors……………………..18

1.1.2.3. Semiconductor transistors as thermal sensors………………21

1.1.2.4. Using of semiconductor diodes as thermal sensors…………22

1.1.2.5. Control unit for thermal fields distribution in the beehive

using semiconductor diodes………………………………...23

1.1.2.6. Measuring of temperature using inductor as thermal

sensor……………………………………………………….26

1.1.2.7. "Temperature-to-frequency" converter……………………..31

1.1.2.8. "Temperature-to-frequency" converter in terms of IC

(integrated circuits) using diode temperature sensors……...32

1.1.2.9. "Temperature-to-frequency" converter in terms of IC

using resistive temperature sensors…….…………………………34

1.1.2.10. Thermocouples…………………………….…………………….36

1.1.2.10.1. Using of thermocouples………………………..………………40

1.1.2.10.2. Electric basic circuits of amplifiers for thermocouples………..41

1.1.3. Using of electronic computers………………………………………42

1.1.4. Possibilities to use other electronic devices for construction of

systems for control and monitoring of bee-families vital functions.………46

1.1.4.1. Local temperature regulator………………………………...46

1.1.4.2. Multipoint digital thermometer and multipurpose metering

converter………………………………………………………………….47

1.1.4.3. Bees flying activity monitoring……………………………..51

1.2. Devices for monitoring of bee-families vital functions and control of

 their parameters…………………………………………………………..……….52

1.2.1. Automated devices for bee-families upkeeping……………………………52

1.2.2. Electronic device for apiaries………………………………………………56

Chapter 2. Mathematical models for bee-families vital functions description….……….59

  • Feed consumption during wintering………………………………………..59
  • Heat exchange of the beehive occupied by bees, with environment……….65

2.2.1. Heat exchange of bees mass with the inner surface of the beehive………...72

2.2.2. Heat exchange of the beehive with bees with the environment

in summer and reserves of honey yield increase…………………………...76

2.2.3. Simulation of the process of bees wintering……………………….……….80

2.2.4. Temperature distribution of bees mass during wintering………….……….86

2.3. Air humidity in bees life [1]………………………………………………..88

2.3.1. Parameters of air humidity…………………………………………..88

2.3.2. Humidity measuring [6]…………………………………………......89

2.3.3. Humidity inside the beehive………………………………………...92

2.3.4. Air humidity in bees life…………………………………………….99

2.3.5. Ventilation of the bees nests…………………………………….....105

2.4. Feed consumption and ventilation during wintering……………………..109

2.5. Bees wintering in the beehive without ventilation……………………….115

Chapter 3. Methods of bee-families state visualization by thermal fields

 distribution measuring……………………………………………………..120

  • Thermal field distribution control during wintering in research work…...120
  • Distant all the year round control over bee-families vital functions

using computers…………………………………………………………………122

3.2.1. All the year round control of thermal fields distribution in

the beehive in practical apiculture………………………………………..122

3.2.2. Experimental researches………………………………………………….151

3.2.3. Processing of experimental data………………………………………….156

3.2.4. Frame controller for thermal fields distribution checking using

thermocouple grid…………………………………………………………174

  • Control of the bee-family functional state during passive period………...177
  • Determination of coordinates of queen-bee position in the beehive……...180

3.4.1. Technique for determination of coordinates of queen-bee

position……………………………………………………………………181

3.4.2. Calculation of inductive sensor parameters……………………………….183

3.4.3. Calculation of mutual inductance…………………………………………184

Chapter 4. Systems for monitoring and control of bee-families vital functions…187

  • Purpose structure and functioning of systems…………………………….187
  • Systems for monitoring and observing bee-families vital functions

all the year round………………………………………………………….187

4.2.1. Systems for all the year round observation over stationary

apiaries…………………………………………………………………….188

4.2.2. Systems for control and monitoring of bee-families vital

functions…………………………………………………………………..194

4.2.3. Systems for monitoring of technological modes of bees

development………………………………………………………..196

4.2.4. Systems for control of bee-families vital functions for

movable apiaries………………………………………………………….199

4.2.5. Thermal field distribution control in the beehive in terms of

thermocouple sensors………………………………………………203

4.2.6. System for determination of coordinates of the queen-bee

position in the hive…………………………………………………205

4.2.7. Control of the attack of other bees and contamination of the

locality by pesticides……………………………………………………...209

4.2.8. Automated system for all the year round observing bee-families

vital functions in terms of noncontact pickup temperature data

from bee-frames plane………………………...………………………….211

4.2.9. Automated system for bee-families state control during

wintering………………………………………………………………….223

Chapter 5.Methods for processing of measuring results of bee-families vital

functions parameters……………………………………………….234

  • Mathematical methods for the analysis of bee-families state by thermal

field distribution…………………………………………………………………234

  • Processing of information taken from the sensors of the system, about

bee-family state………………………………………………………...………..241

5.2.1. Analysis of thebee-family state in terms of temperature data

taken from sensors………………………………………………………...241

5.2.2. Definition of the type of functional “temperature-to-frequency”

dependence……………………………………………………….……….244

5.2.3. Calculation of the correlation coefficient usingthe program…………….249

5.2.4. Experimental data…………………………………………………………253

5.2.5. Temperature of the bees mass in winter………………………….……….266

Chapter 6.Error estimate of the measurement of bee-families vital function

parameters……………………………………………………….…271

  • Methods for error estimate of measurement……………………………...271

6.1.1. Technique of measurement results processing……………………………275

  • Quantitative error estimate of the measurement of bee-family

vital functions parameters………………………………………………...278

6.2. Definition of error estimate……………………………………………….284

  • Random error estimate of measurements…………………………..286
  • Estimate of the truth of difference of two independent selections

average…………………………………………………………………………..293

  • Estimate ofthe importance of the mean difference……………….295
  • Analysis of the statistic characteristics while studying qualitative

features…………………………………………………………………………..296

  • Valuation…………………………………………………………..298
  • Correlation and regression…………………………………………298

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….303

Bibliographical list………………………………………………………………309

Appendices. Programmes for measuring and processing of temperature

 information by the device of bee-families vital function control….315

Appendix 1………………………………………………………………………316

Appendix 2………………………………………………………………………324

Appendix 3………………………………………………………………………337

Appendix 4………………………………………………………………………341

Appendix 5………………………………………………………………………345

Appendix 6………………………………………………………………………348

Appendix 7………………………………………………………………………362

Appendix 8………………………………………………………………………371

Appendix 9………………………………………………………………………382

Appendix 10…………………………………………………………..…………387

Appendix 11…………………………………………………………..…………405


[ Ãëàâíàÿ ]  [ Îáðàòíàÿ ñâÿçü ]  [ Íîâîñòè